Neuropeptide gene families

 

Neuropeptide gene families are hyperlinked to bioinformatics data sources on gene localization and expression, protein structure and receptors.

 

Neuropeptides are presented as the processed, biologically active products of the neuropeptide precursors (prepro-peptide) and the encoding gene. The listed neuropeptides fall under the conservative definition (see text) and brain expression has been reported. The exception is the family of adipose neuropeptides that have been implicated as hormones produced by adipose tissues signaling to the brain. However, increasing evidence indicates that they can also be produced by neurons within the nervous system. Neuropeptide genes are classified in families that share structural similarities or functional similarities (opioid peptides). No for all mentioned neuropeptides biological activities and cognate receptors have been described.

Cytokines and chemokines have not been included; a database is available at (http://cytokine.medic.kumamoto-u.ac.jp/).

 

Genes are abbreviated according to the official gene nomenclature (http://www.gene.ucl.ac.uk/nomenclature/)and linked to the corresponding locus in the human genome (March 2006 assembly) through the USCS Genome Browser (http://genome.ucsc.edu). The ideograms show the human chromosomal localization. The linked page provides direct access to bioinformatics data on transcripts, expression, homologies to other species and gene variations, entered through clicking the gene name.

 

Precursors are given as prepro-peptide and are linked to homologous proteins of human and other species through NCBI (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov). Primary structures of precursors are found here by gi numbers. Different splice variants of the same gene are given separately.

 

Brain expression data are refer to the mouse brain and are derived from the Allen Brain Atlas (http://www.brain-map.org) or, if not available, from Genepaint.org (http://genepaint.org) showing expression in the whole mouse embryo. A hyperlink provides direct access to in situ hybridization on the mouse for each gene.

 

Receptors of neuropeptides are most often G-protein-coupled receptors (http://www.iuphar-db.org/list/). One precursor can harbor more than one neuropeptide, while one neuropeptide can act on multiple receptors.

 

 

Gene 

(gene symbol)

Chromosomal localization

Precursor 

Active peptide (s) 

Mouse brain expression

Opioid gene family 

 

 

 

 

Pro-enkephalin gene (PENK)

 

 

Prepro-enkephalin 

Leu-enkephalin, Met-enkephalin , amidorphin, adrenorphin, peptide B, peptide E, peptide F, BAM22P

Pro-opiomelanocortin gene (POMC

 

 

POMC 

a-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (a-MSH), g-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (g-MSH), -melanocyte-stimulating hormone (-MSH),  adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH),  -endorphin, a-endorphin,  g-endorphin, -lipoprotein (-LPH), g-lipoprotein (g-LPH), corticotropin-like intermediate peptide (CLIP) 

 

Pro-dynorphin gene (PDYN

 

 

 

Prepro-dynorphin 

Dynorphin A, dynorphin B, a-neo-endorphin, -neo-endorphin, dynorphin-32, leu-morphin 

Orphanin gene, pre-pronociceptin gene (PNOC)

 

Prepro-nociceptin, Prepro-orphanin 

Nociceptin (orphanin FQ), neuropeptide1, neuropeptide 2

Vasopressin/oxytocin gene family 

 

 

 

 

Vasopressin gene (AVP

 

Prepro-vasopressin-neurophysin II 

Vasopressin (VP), neurophysin II (NP II), C-terminal glycopeptide CPP 

Oxytocin gene (OXT)

 

Prepro-oxytocin-neurophysin

Oxytocin (OT), neurophysin I (NP 1) 

CCK/gastrin gene family 

 

 

 

 

Gastrin gene (GAST)

Prepro-gastrin 

Gastrin-34, gastrin-17, gastrin-4 

Cholecystokinin gene (CCK

Prepro-CCK 

CCK-8, CCK-33, CCK-58 

Somastostatin gene family 

 

 

 

 

Somastostatin gene (SST

Prepro-somatostatin 

SS-12, SS-14, SS-28, antrin 

Cortistatin gene (CST)

Prepro-cortistatin

cortistatin-29, cortistatin-17

F- and Y-amide gene family

 

 

 

 

Gonadotropin inhibitory hormone gene, RF-amide related peptide gene (RFRP)

 

Prepro-NPRF

QRF-amide (neuropeptide RF-amide, GnIH, p518, RF-related peptide-2), RF-related peptide-1, RF-related peptide-3

Neuropeptide FF gene (NPFF),

 

Prepro-NPFF

Neuropeptide FF, neuropeptide AF, neuropeptide SF

Neuropeptide Y gene (NPY

Prepro-NPY 

NPY, C-flanking peptide CPON 

Pancreatic polypeptide gene (PPY

 

Prepro-PPY 

PPY 

Peptide YY gene (PYY

Prepro-PYY 

PYY, PYY-(3-36)

Prolactin-releasing peptide (PRLH)

Prepro-PrRP

PrRP-31, PrRP-20

not available

Calcitonin gene family 

 

 

 

 

Calcitonin I gene (CALCA

Prepro-CALC

Calcitonin, katacalcin

 

 

Prepro-CGRP-alpha 

Calcitonin gene related peptide I (a-CGRP) 

 

Calcitonin II gene (CALCB

Prepro-CGRP-beta 

Calcitonin gene related peptide II (-CGRP) 

Islet amyloid polypeptide gene (IAPP), Amylin gene

 

Prepro-IAPP 

IAPP (amylin, amyloid polypeptide

Adrenomedullin gene (ADM)

Prepro-adrenomedullin

Adrenomedullin, AM, PAMP

Adrenomedullin-2 gene (ADM2)

 

Prepro-adrenomedullin-2

Adrenomedullin-2, intermedin-long (IMDL), intermedin-short (IMDS)

Natriuretic factor gene family 

 

 

 

 

Atrial natriuretic factor gene (NPPA) 

 

Prepro-ANP 

Atrial natriuretic factor (natriuretic peptide A, ANF, ANP, natriodilatine, cardiodilatine-related peptide)

Brain natriuretic factor gene (NPPB) 

Prepro-BNP 

Brain natriuretic factor (natriuretic peptide B, BNF, BNP)

Natriuretic peptide precursor C gene (NPPC)

 

Prepro-CNP

C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP-23), CNP-29, CNP-53

Bombesin-like peptide gene family 

 

 

 

 

Gastrin releasing peptide gene (GRP

prero-GRP-1

GRP-27, GRP-14, GRP-10 (neuromedin C)

 

 

Prepro-GRP-2

GRP-27, GRP-14, GRP-10 (neuromedin C)

 

 

 

Prepro-GRP-3

GRP-27, GRP-14, GRP-10 (neuromedin C)

 

Neuromedin B gene  (NMB)

Prepro-neuromedin B1

Neuromedin B (Ranatensin-like peptide, RLP)

 

 

Prepro-neuromedin B2

Neuromedin B (Ranatensin-like peptide, RLP)

 

Endothelin gene family 

 

 

 

 

Endothelin 1 gene (EDN1

Prepro-endothelin 1 (PPET1) 

Endothelin 1 (ET-1)

Endothelin 2 gene (EDN2

Prepro-endothelin 2 (PPET2)2  

Endothelin 2  (ET-2)

Endothelin 3 gene (EDN3

Prepro-endothelin 3 (PPET3)

Endothelin 3 (ET-3)

Glucagon/secretin gene family 

 

 

 

 

Glucagon gene (CGC)

 

Prepro-glucagon

Glicentin; Glicentin-related polypeptide

(GRPP); Oxyntomodulin (OXY) (OXM); Glucagon; Glucagon-like

peptide 1 (GLP-1); Glucagon-like peptide 1(7-37) (GLP-1(7-37));

Glucagon-like peptide 1(7-36) (GLP-1(7-36)); Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2)]

Secretin gene (SCT

Prepro-secretin 

secretin 

Vasoactive intestinal peptide gene (VIP

Prepro-VIP-1 

VIP, PHM-27/PHI-27, PHV-42 

 

 

Prepro-VIP-2

VIP, PHM-27/PHI-27, PHV-42 

 

Pituitary adenylcyclase-activated peptide gene (ADCYAP1)

 

Prepro-PACAP

PACAP-38, PACAP-27, PRP-48

Growth hormone releasing hormone gene (GHRH) 

 

Prepro-GHRH

GHRH (somatoliberin,GRF, somatocrinin, somatorelin, sermorelin)

 

Gastric inhibitory peptide gene (GIP

 

Prepro-GIP 

GIP (gastric inhibitory peptide, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide) 

CRH-related gene family

 

 

 

 

Corticotropin-releasing hormone gene (CRH)

 

Prepro-CRH

CRH

Urocortin gene (UCN)

Prepro-UNC I

UNC I

Urocortin II gene (UCN2)

Prepro-UNC II

UNC II, stresscopin-related peptide

not available

Urocortin III gene (UCN3)

Prepro-UNC III

UNC III, stresscopin

Urotensin-II (UTS2)

Prepro-urotensin-2, isoform a

Urotensin-2

not available

 

 

Prepro-urotensin-2, isofrom b

Urotensin-2

 

Urotensin-II domain containing (UTS2D)

Prepro-urotensin-2B

Urotensin-2-related peptide,urotensin-2B

Kinin and tensin gene family

 

 

 

 

Preprotachykinin A gene (TAC1)

 

a-PPTA 

Substance P, neurokinin A (NKA, substance K, neuromedin L), neuropeptide K, neuropeptide gamma  

 

 

-PPTA 

Substance P, neuropeptide K, neurokinin

 

 

 

g-PPTA 

Substance P, neurokinin A, neuropeptide g 

 

 

 

δ-PPTA

Substance P, neuropeptide K, neurokinin

 

Preprotachykinin B gene (TAC3)

PPTB, isoform 1

Neuromedin K, neurokinin B

 

 

PPTB, isoform 2

Neuromedin K, neurokinin B

 

Neuromedins

 

 

 

 


Neuromedin S gene (NMS)

Prepro-neuromedin S

Neuromedin S

not available

Neuromedin U gene (NMU)

 

Prepro-neuromedin U, multiple isoforms

Neuromedin U

Tensins and Kinins

 

 

 

 

Kininogen-1 gene (KNG1

 

Kininogen-1 precursor, multiple isoforms

BradykininkallidinLMW-K-kininHMW-K-kinin 

Angiotensin gene (AGT)

Angiotensinogen Preprotein 

Angiotensin I, angiotensin IIangiotensin-(17) 

Neurotensin gene (NTS

Prepro-neurotensin 

Neurotensin (NT), neuromedin

Granins

 

 

 

 

Chromogranin A gene (CHGA)

Chromogranin A precursor

Chromogranin A, beta-granin, vasostatin

Chromogranin B gene (CHGB)

 

Chromogranin B precursor

Chromogranin B (secretogranin I), CCB peptide, GAWK peptide

 

 

Chromogranin B precursor variant

Chromogranin B (secretogranin I)

 

Secretogranin II gene (SCG2)

 

Secretogranin II precursor , chromogranin C precurosor

Secretogranin II (chromogranin C), EM66, secretoneurin

Secretogranin III gene (SCG3)

Secretogranin III precursor

Secretogranin III

Secretory granule neuroendocrine protein 1, 7B2 gene (SGNE1)

Secretory granule neuroendocrine precursor

Secretory granule neuroendocrine protein-1 (7B2, secretogranain 5)

VGF nerve growth factor inducible protein (VGF)

 

VGF-precursor

VGF (NGF-inducible protein, neurosectretory protein), TLPQ-62, TLPQ-21, AQEE-30, LQEQ-19

Motilin family 

 

 

 

 

Motilin gene (MLN)  

Prepro-motilin isoform

motilin 

not available

 

 

Prepro-motilin isofrom 2

Motilin, motillin-associated peptide

 

Ghrelin gene (GHRL)

Prepro-ghrelin

Ghrelin, obestatin

Galanin family

 

 

 

 

Galanin gene (GAL)

Prepro-galanin 

Galanin, galanin message associated peptide (GMAP)

Galanin-like peptide precursor gene (GALP)

Galanin-like peptide precursor

Galanin-like peptide (GALP)

GnRH family

 

 

 

 

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone gene (GnRH1) 

 

Prepro-GnRH1 

GnRH (LHRH, gonadoliberin

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone gene (GnRH2) 

 

Prepro-GNRH2, Isoform-a

GnRH2 (LHRH II, gonadoliberin II)

not in mouse

 

 

Prepro-GNRH2, Isoform-b

GnRH2 (LHRH II, gonadoliberin II)

not in mouse

 

 

Prepro-GNRH2, Isoform-c

GnRH2 (LHRH II, gonadoliberin II)

not in mouse

Neuropeptide B/W family

 

 

 

 

Neuropeptide B gene (NPB)

 

Prepro-neuropeptide B, PPL7

Neuropeptide B-23 (peptide L7), neuropeptide B-29,

Neuropeptide W gene (NPW)

 

Prepro-neuropeptide W, PPL8

Neuropeptide W-23 (peptide L8), neuropeptide W-30,

Neuropeptides S gene (NPS)

Prepro-neuropeptide S

Neuropeptide S

not available

Neurexophilins

 

 

 

 

Neurexophilin-1 (NXPH1)

Neurexophilin-1 precursor

Neurexophilin-1

Neurexophilin-2 (NXPH2)

Neurexophilin-2 precursor

Neurexophilin-2

Neurexophilin-3 (NXPH3)

Neurexophilin-3 precursor

Neurexophilin-3

Neurexophilin-4 (NXPH4)

Neurexophilin-4 precursor

Neurexophilin-4

Insulin family

 

 

 

 

Insulin gene (INS)

Prepro-insulin

insulin

IGF-1 gene (IGF1)

IGF-1 precursor

IGF-1 (somatomedin C)

IGF-2 gene (IGF2)

IGF-2 precursor

IGF-2 (somatomedin A)

Relaxin-1 gene (RLN1)

Prepro-relaxin-1

Relaxin-1

Relaxin-2 gene (RLN2)

Prepro-relaxin-2, isoform 1

Relaxin-2

not in mouse

 

 

Prepro-relaxin-2, Isoform 2

Relaxin-2

 

Relaxin-3 gene (RLN3)

Prepro-relaxin-3

Relaxin-3

No-family neuropeptides

 

 

 

 

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone gene (TRH) 

 

Prepro-TRH 

TRH (thyroliberin)

Parathyroid hormone-like hormone gene (PTHLH)

 

Prepro-PTH-like hormone, isoform 1

PTHrP-(1-36), PTHrP-(38-94), PTHrP-(107-139) (osteostatin)

Melanin-concentrating hormone gene (PMCH)

 

Prepro-MCH 

MCH, neuropeptide Glu-Ile (NEI),  neuropeptide Gly-Glu (NGE) 

not available

Hypocretin gene (HCRT)

Prepro-hypocretin

Hypocretin-1 (orexin A), hypocretin-2 (orexin B)

Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript gene (CART)

 

Prepro-CART

CART-(1-39), CART-(42-89)

Agouti-related protein homolog gene (AGRP)

 

AGRP precursor isoform 1

AGRP

 

 

Prepro-AGRP isoform 2

AGRP

 

Prolactin (PRL)

Prolactin precursor

Prolactin

Apelin gene (APLN)

Prepro-apelin

Apelin-13, apelin-17, apelin-36 (APJ ligand, AGTRL1 ligand)

Metastasis-suppressor KiSS (KISS1)

 

Kiss-1

Metastin (kisspeptin-54), (golgi transport 1 homolog A,golt1a), kisspeptin-14, kisspeptin-13, kisspeptin-10,

 

Diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI)

DBI isoform 1

Diazepam-binding inhibitory peptide

 

 

DBI isoform 2

Diazepam-binding inhibitory peptide

 

 

 

DBI isoform 3

Diazepam-binding inhibitory peptide

 

Cerebellins

 

 

 

 

Cerebellin-1 gene (CBLN1)

Cerebellin-1 precursor

Cerebellin-1 (Cbln1)

not available

Cerebellin-2 gene (CBLN2)

Cerebellin-2-precursor

Cerebellin-2 (Cbln2)

Cerebellin-3 gene (CBLN3)

Cerebellin-3 precursorCerebellin-2 precursor

Cerebellin-3 (Cbln3)

Cerebellin-4 gene (CBLN4),

 

Cerebellin-4 precursorCerebellin-3 precursor

Cerebellin-4 (Cbln4, cerebellin-like glycoprotein-1)

Adipose neuroepeptides

 

 

 

 

Leptin/ob gene (LEP)

Prepro-leptin

Leptin (obesin

Adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ)

Adiponectin precursor

Adiponectin (Acpr30, adipocyte complement related protein; adipocyte, C1Q and collagen domain containing)

Visfatin gene (PBEF1)

 

Visfatin precursor

Visfatin-1 (pre-B cell colony enhancing factor-1 (PBEF1), nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase)

 

Resistin gene (RETN)

 

Resistin precursor

Resistin (Cysteine-rich secreted protein FIZZ3, Adipose tissue-specific secretory factor, Cysteine-rich secreted protein A12-alpha-like 2, ADSF, Xcp4)

 

 

Resistin-delta2 precursor

Resistin-delta2

 

Resistin-like alpha gene (RETLA)

 

not in human

Resistin-like molecule alpha precursor (RELMalpha)

Resistin-like molecule alpha (found in inflammatory zone 1; FIZZ1, hypoxia-induced mitogenic factor, Xcp2).

Resistin-like beta gene (RETLB)

 

Resistin-like molecule beta precursor (RELMbeta)

Resistin-like molecule beta (Cysteine-rich secreted protein FIZZ2, Colon and small intestine-specific cysteine-rich protein, Cysteine-rich secreted protein A12-alpha-like 1, Colon carcinoma-related gene protein, Xcp3).

not available

Resistin-like ggammane (RETLG)

 

not in human

Resistin-like molecule gamma precursor (RELMgamma)

Resistin-like molecule gamma(Cysteine-rich secreted protein FIZZ3, Xcp1)

Nucleobindin-2/NEFA gene (NUCB2)(NUCB2)

 

 

Nucleobindin-2

 

Nesfatin-1

Ubiquitin-like 5 (UBL5)

 

 

 

Beacon precursor

Beacon